The Indonesian archipelago is the one of the highest sea biodiversity in the world, as the pasific region which has 13.466 islands with 99.093 km coastline. That potential caused the Indonesia coastal areas become one of the sea turtle nesting habitat. This program will be conducted in the nothern Sumatra (one of the five biggest islands in Indonesia), the Aceh province coastal areas ; Lampuuk and Leupung, Aceh besar district. Both of areas have observed that Green turtle lay their eggs (nesting habitat) with the sloping crumbly fine sand and the vegetations. This areas are directly adjacent in Indian Ocean that were a migration and foraging path for sea turtle based on WWF mapping.
There are seven different species of sea turtles in the world which six of them are found in Indonesia. Based on Aceh geological and marine ecosystem, six of sea turtles are found in Aceh. One of them is Chelonia Mydas (Green Turtle). In the IUCN red list of the threatened species, green turtle classified to Endangered.It occurs due to the survival of sea turtles are generally very low. Coles,W and W,toller,(2002) mention that “from 1.000 to 10.000 sea turtles that hatching, only one can grow well into an adult sea turtle within 12-50 years”. Meanwhile,(Kemp, K, B. etc,2000) describes that “the sexual maturity of sea turtles reach in long period of time on average 20-30 years. In Indonesia, the decline population of green turtles reach 80% in the last 10 years and the fastest exploitation of sea turtles grow in Indonesia. The decreasing always happen due to several key factors such as taking of sea turtles and its egg, exploiting of spawning habitat, destruction of coastal habitat and feeding areas as well as predator threats. Based on the survey, in every single of a hundred of egg which produced by sea turtles, there is only 3% that could hatch well and reached to the ocean successfully and safely. Besides, only few of them are able to reproduce its egg after a few decades. Moreover, the habit of the society in consuming egg turtle’s made the population of sea turtles in serious critical condition.
Although the Indonesian government has stated that the turtle is one of animal that must be protected and release the laws about protection of species, the hunt of sea turtles and its egg still happen in every regions of Indonesia. The factors that has been considered in entering the sea turtles as the protected species because there are many cases that caused the decline in sea turtle populations each year. This is due to several things such as the shifting in land functions that causes damage to coastal habitats, increasing sea turtle death because of fishing activities, management of conservation techniques are inadequate way, climate change, diseases, hunting sea turtles and its egg, and the threat of predators. In the other hand, the characteristics of sea turtles cycle life takes very long (especially green turtle, hawks bill, and loggerhead) to achieve a condition of “stable” (the constant abundance of population over the last 5 years) that can take about30-40 years (Directorate Conservation and Marine National Park, 2009:15).
Ironically, even though Indonesia has the highest natural resources, Indonesia is also the highest of extinction animals country, especially species of sea turtles. Those can be seen from the high hunting of sea turtles due to very high market demand toward wild and endangered animals either for food or trinkets. So, to stop hunting of protected animals is too difficult to implement in Indonesia. Besides, Various regulations relating to the hunting and trade of wildlife have been regulated in various regulations.
However, the presence of these various regulations has not been able to contribute in solving the problem towards the protection of wildlife, especially sea turtles. Lack of optimal in implementing of sea turtles protection is due to various problems that could be viewed in three aspects. Those are regulatory aspects of the legislation, the government sector and the aspect of the community itself. Lack of society awareness about the importance of perpetuity and protection toward scarcity species will be an important aspect to figure it out where many people do not get information how importance the survival of these ancient mariners and the bad impact as well. It will build people mindset tend to think “if there is for today, it will be have tomorrow” as a result the hunting and trading of the turtles will always happen.
Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) have survived for more than a hundred-million years and now they presences are become endangered and probably facing extinct. Extractive use for eggs, meat and other products is believed to be the major reason for population decline. On the other hand, The green turtle population are now threatened by loss of their nesting beaches to coastal development, accidental capture by longline fishing and nets, predation of the eggs by feral animals. The green turtle is commonly found in tropical ocean and frequently lay their eggs in the tropical coastal areas, in this case the Lampuuk and Leupung coastal areas were observed of female green turtle presences to layying their eggs. This area is the one of most heavily affected by the tsunami, which cause the extremely coastal landscape changes that resulted beach nesting habitat loss and their misunderstandings navigation in a geometric birthplace visual. Green turtle play important roles to keep ecosystem balanced, to control the jellyfish population, the squids and the tunicates that were known as sea turtle food. In addition, the leatherback turtle were play important roles to keep the sea health and the sea grass ecosystem.
Monitoring and conservation of the green turtle began in 2011 in some coastal areas region of Lampuuk and Leupung. Sea turtles conservation in this areas is not going well even threatened to failed because of the observation data is not completed for conservation development. Based on the data (2012), there were 20 individuals of Green turtle visited at Lhoknga coastal areas, feared that in the next five years there were not green turtle visited. Moreover, based on monitoring survey by WWF(2015), there were under 1000 individuals of green turtle in Indonesian ocean and that was reported probably extinct in west part of Sumatra.
We are seriously consider that green turtle are play important role in our ocean ecosystem. It were suggest serious population declines by human, destroyed coastal areas, the death by feral animals that becoming the major factors contributing to declines population. On the other side, it has a low level reproduction with a high mortality for their eggs and hatchlings.This data are important to keep their population safe. As an organization, we need a track record of the rate of increase in the threat of extinct of this species so that the protection and issues can be monitored.