This study conducted in Seulawah mountain region, Aceh which are the forest areas. Seulawah agam is one of the volcanoes that are still active in Aceh. Located right in between the two districts of Aceh Besar and Pidie. The forest types are lowland forest, secondary and primary forest with water resources and caves. Although forests in these mountains have become an area of protected forest, but the general condition of the mountain began to concern, along the mountain road seulawah lot of barren land, deforestation by burning and cutting, and the grass accidentally sprayed until yellowing is clearly visible in several places. This condition is exacerbated by the expansion of land for cultivation by residents, and the making of a new settlement for the community.
The fruit bats and the insect eating bats are list as endangered species, vulnarable or population under control based on IUCN. Fruit bats and insect eating bats are commonly found in agricultural areas with cultivated plant, secondary and primary forest and caves as roosting habitat.Both of that bats play important roles to keep ecosystem balanced. Fruit batshave an important roles asseed dispersersandpollinators. Fruit bats feed at least 145 genera of fruit in 30 families of plants. The visit by fruit bats to flowers for food may result pollination of those flowers. While, the insect eating bats play major to keep the insect population. In one night, insect eating bats colonies eat about 2000 of insects. The bats important role in ecosystem make that animals considered to conservation programme to keep their population balanced.Many bats were suggest serious in population declines in their range, due principally to habitat loss. Habitat loss has been a major factor contributing to declines in bats population. Loss of forest, results in the loss of food resources, foraging area, habitat to live for many species including bats.
Thera are 19 species of fruit bats (Megachiroptera) and 46 insect eating bats (Microchiroptera status based on IUCN. The Conservation catagorized are Extinct (EX), Critically endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Low Risk (LR), Near Threatened (NT), Least Concern (LC), Data Deficient (DC), Not Evaluated (NE), Not Recognized (NR). The fruit bats and insect eating bats species were widely distirbuted in Sumatra and adjacent island (Maryanto and Higashi 2011) and (Schaik and Supriatna 1996 ) but, there was no scientific data for Aceh, especially Seulawah Mountain Region. Most species are categorized with Least Concern, Near Threatened and Vulnerable.
Fruit Bats (Megchiroptera)
Aethalops alecto (LC), Balionycteris maculata (LC), Chironax melanocephalus (LC), Cynopterus brachyotis (LC), Cynopterus horsfieldi (LC), Cynopterus minutus (LC), Cynopterus sphinx (LC), Cynopterus titthaecheilus (LC), Dyacopterus spadiceus (NR), Megaerops ecaudatus(LC), Megaerops wetmorei (VU), Penthetor lucasi (LC), Pteropus hypomelanu (LC), Pteropus melanotus (VU), Pteropus vampyrus (NT), Rousettus amplexicaudatus (LC), Rousettus leschenaulti (LC), Eonycteris spelaea (LC) and Macroglossus sobrinus(LC).
Insect eating bats (Microchiroptera)
Rhipoma microphyllum (LC), Emballonura monticola (LC), Saccolaimus saccolaimus (LC), Taphozous longimanu (LC), Taphozous melanopogon (LC), Nycteris tragat (NT), Magaderma spasma (LC), Rhinolophus acuminatus (LC), Rhinolophus affini (LC), Rhinolophus arcuatus (LC), Rhinolophus lepidus (LC), Rhinolophus luctus (LC), Rhinolophus macrotis, Rhinolophus stheno, Hipposideros ater, Hipposideros bicolor, Hipposideros cervinus, Hipposideros diadema, Hipposideros larvatus, Hipposideros sabanus, Glischropus tylopus, Myotis adversus, Myotis formosus, Myotis hasseltii, Myotis muricola, Myotis ridleyi, Philetor brachypterus, Philetor brachypterus brachypterus, Pipistrellus javanicus, Pipistrellus stenopterus, Pipistrellus tenuis, Tyloncyteris pachypus, Tyloncyteris robustula, Miniopterus magnater, Miniopterus schreibersii, Harpiocephalus harpia, Murina suilla, Kerivoula hardwickii, Kerivoula papillosa, Kerivoula pellucida, Kerivoula picta,Phoniscus atrox, Chaerephon johorensis, Cheiromeles torquatus, Mops mops, Mormopterus doriae
Conservation research is urgently needed to reduce the impact of forest loss .This project aims to determine the ecology and behaviour of fruit bats and insect eating bats, including their composition (sex rasio and reproduction status), distribution, habitat types with the microclimate (temperature and humidity) and learn about their nature predator, habitat preferences that closely related with food availability. The results of this study will considered for conservation programme for the mountain areas for a long term survival.
The study of bats are not well documented in Aceh province. Bats diversity only reported in Gunung Leuser National Park, which are 16 species of Fruit bats and 46 species of insect eating bats (Schaik and Supriatna 1996).In recent study, Sumatra has 19 species of fruit bats and species of insect eating bats (Maryanto and Higashi 2011). There were not a new record about bats diversity study for a long time. Seulawah mountain region are suspected to have high diversity, especially for bats. Based on the monitoring of the local community, many species of animals such as wild boar, mammals and many species of birds can be found in this mountain region. There has been no scientific data explaining the diversity of mammals in this mountain region, especially for bats.
As a Biologist, we are seriously consider that bats are play important role in our ecosystem. Bats were suggest serious in population declines in their range, due principally to habitat loss. Habitat loss has been a major factor contributing to declines in bats population. Loss of forest, results in the loss of food resources, foraging area and habitat to live. On the other side, bats has a low level reproduction, they just birth one offspring in a year. For that, the conservation programme for this species are important to keep their population balanced.